Epilogue : Translatio Studiorum in the Future.
Ancient, Medieval and Modern Bearers of Intellectual History Translatio studiorum et instruments de travail philosophiques médiévaux à l'époque scolastique. lymademula.gq: Translatio Studiorum: Ancient, Medieval and Modern Bearers of Intellectual History (Brill's Studies in Intellectual History) (English and French.
Riccardo Pozzo. Rita Salis. Eva Del Soldato. Emidio Spinelli. Translatio Studiorum Through Philosophical Terminology.
Giacinta Spinosa. Pina Totaro. Francesco Verde.
Giacinta Spinosa - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Tullio Gregory - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Riccardo Pozzo - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Rita Salis - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Marta Fattori - - In Marco Sgarbi ed.
Archives of Natural History , 22, Suntrup, J. Interaction Ritual Changes. Differential backup is a backup of all changes made since the; last full backup. Mannerist Art , London, Macmillan. Milan, Edizioni.
Jacqueline Hamesse - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Hansmichael Hohenegger - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Claudio Leonardi - - In Marco Sgarbi ed.
Gregorio Piaia - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Vasiliki Grigoropoulou - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Francesco Verde - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Burke - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Constance Blackwell - - In Marco Sgarbi ed. Different cultural horizons and new experiences of life and thought were mirrored in the lexicon of a language that became progressively richer. At that time Latin was the undisputed linguistic vehicle of culture. Before long, however, the role to be played by the vernacular languages became an issue.
The fact that translatio was primarily achieved thanks to the Latin language was an issue that gained in importance in European conscious- ness between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. New worlds and new stars required changes in mental schemes and languages, and cor- respondingly profound transformations in both the Latin and vernacular lexica.
It was not only a question of coining new words within the history of modern Latin anthropologia and psychologia, for instance, ontologia and aesthetica, dualismus and monismus, telescopium and microscopium : another fundamental translatio occurs when old terms are imbued with new meanings neosemy and stripped of their traditional meanings. From this point of view one might say that modern philosophy con- structed its own languageboth Latin and vernacularby means of its constant commitment to rejuvenating its own lexicon.
It did not consist solely of the progressive invention of neologisms, it was first and foremost a translatio of meanings, a usage of lexemes that had long been defined by the authority of the scholastic tradition and that were now stripped of their ancient meanings in order to be assigned new ones.
Descartes wrote that he was about to introduce a novus usus of the term intuitus, a vulgari significatione removere; singula verba Clericus Lugduni Batavorum: Clericus, , t.
I, col. Porro quum undequaque tota rerum humanarum scena inversa sit, quis hodie potest apte dicere, nisi multum Ciceroni dissimilis? Quocumque me verto, video mutata omnia, in alio sto pro- scenio, aliud conspicio theatrum, imo mundum alium. We could go on like this: I mention these examples to remind ourselves of all the modes and forms of translatio that have accompanied the his- tory of culture.
I will now look at specific and technical lexica and will try to cover the period right up to our own, in which the issue of translatio is no longer considered with respect to Latin, but to the language of authors who have acquired visibility beyond the boundaries of their own coun- try and language, thanks to the originality of their thought and expres- sion.
Just think how much neo-Latin languages owe as regards neology and neosemy to the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and later of Edmund Husserl, and Martin Heidegger. Once again, this is a translatio, which takes place in analysis, translations, and interpretations. Another epochal passagea new translatiooccurred at the threshold of modernity: the progressive affirmation in philosophical and scientific writing of vernacular languages, the defense of their autonomy and dig- nity.
Once again the route is opened up by means of translations.
Sperone Speroni placed in the mouth of Pietro Pomponazzi a trenchant appeal to read the ancient philosophers in vernacular translation: an appeal that become paradigmatic and was echoed in France in the pages of Joachim du Bellay. Pomponazzis argument was firm: poor usage of humanist heri- tage had reduced philosophy to mere imitation, while promoting a cult of words, as if they were holy relics.
The humanists had failed to perceive that the ancient superb edifice was already in decay. A new translatio was needed from Greek and Latin to the vernacular languages and even the dialects.
Pomponazzis speech, as reported by Speroni, even assumed pro- phetic and messianic overtones. Pomponazzi boldly compared him to a new Messiahto Christ himself, who was first blamed and cru- cified, and later revered and adored. The temerity of the simile did not escape Costantino Lascaris, a learned representative of the most conserva- tive classical humanism. Provided, obviously, that they had been freed from the cult of words that had rendered ancient culture the patrimony of a handful of scholars who did not adhere to any style of thought but instead followed only words, which is not food but a dream and shadow of the real food of the intellect.
Philosophy would leave the schools and descend among the people, so that the farmer as well as the gentle- man could philosophize. Peretto Pomponazzi concluded hoping for an age in which without the help of the languages the people could study and to become perfect in every science. Following on from Sperone Speroni, whom he often literally translated, Joachim du Bellay developed with great clarity in his Deffence et Illustra- tion de la Langue Francoyse, a motif we already noted in Pomponazzis speech: the demysticizing power of translation, which strips ancient texts of the oracular aura bestowed by the use of dead languages.
Theolo- gians, especiallyvenerables Druydeswith their supersticieuses rai- sons, showed that they feared translations, which reveal the mystres, of which they claim to be the sole owners. The polemic on translating becomes more and more antischolastic and antitheological. The goal was to render philosophy accessible plebi quodammodo atque etiam foeminis.
The rival trajectories of religious renewal between the fifteenth and the sixteenth century found their precise point of intersection in the agreed need for direct access by believers to the text of the Bible, beyond the mediation of both the Latin language and Scholastic exegesis. While the translator of the first Italian version of the Bible, published by Niccol Malerbi, in , was already dedicating it to all human beings without any distinction between male and female or by age,60 it was Erasmusthe most lucid expression of Europes unruly consciousnesswho gave the most clear-cut reason, when he defined the reading of the Bible in any of the vernacular languages as the privileged route for philosophia Christiana, setting aside all useless theological dis- putes, such as those concerning the Resurrection of Christ, the Eucharist, and the Trinity, which is where all dissidia, contentiones, odia, haereses were born.
Let us return to Scripture, he wrote, under the guidance of ones own consciousness. The discussion that followed concerning Luthers approach to translation especially as regards Pauls verse on justification by faith provoked a number of relevant responses, in terms of a new manner of. VIII, dedica pio lectori Equidem cupiam in omnes verti linguas. Cupit Christus suam Phi- losophiam quam latissime propagari.
Pro omnibus mortuus est: ab omnibus cognosci desiderat Nunc ut quod institui pergam, cur indecorum videtur, si quisquam sonet Evangelium ea lingua qua natus est, et quam intelligit: Gallus Gallica, Britannus Britan- nica, Germanus Germanica, Indus Indica? While it is trueas many have cor- rectly suggestedthat not all vernacular versions of the Bible were asso- ciated with the Reformation and some even predate itwhich explains why the first reservations were not expressed at the Council of Trent until it is equally the case that the theologians of Paris were very clear in their minds when, in their condemnation of , they cited a clear line of continuity between several medieval heresieswhich also called for the Bible to be disseminated more widely in vernacular translationand the new versions that appeared in the age of Reformation.
It is no wonder that religious and political institutions, which consider themselves invested by a superior authority to keep track of ideas and behaviors, have always tried to set, whenever they could, precise limita- tions on the press and the free circulation of booksthe chosen means being proscriptions and book-burning. They set out to hinder precisely that translatio librorum, which I have shown to be an essential structure of the translatio studiorum. For this reason, it is worth recalling as an aside that the circulation of books in all its material aspects from printing to.
An Italian translation in Scritti religiosi Torino: UTET, , denn man mu nicht die Buchstaben in der lateinischen Sprache fragen, wie man soll deutsch reden, wie diese Esel thun, sondern man mu die Mutter im Hause, die Kinder auf der Gassen, den gemeinen Mann auf dem Markt drmb fragen und denselbigen auf das Maul sehen, wie sie redden, und darnach dolmetschen. Quare huiusce tempestatis perspecta hominum malitia, periculosa ac perniciosa censetur eiusmodi traductio.
Testimony to this is provided by the many letters mirroring interests, friendships, and tensions within the Respublica litterarum, with all pressing requests and searches for, and exchanges of new, rare or pro- hibited books. The ecclesiastical censors perfectly understood the revolutionary value of book circulationthe vehicle of every translatio studiorumwell beyond the diffusion of clandestine texts which were still being entrusted to manuscripts as late as the age of the Enlightenment.
They sought to control printers and booksellers, worried as they were about, first and foremost, the ever-widening circulation of texts originating in Reformed countries within their Catholic counterparts. Hence the ordinances to local Catholic authorities to exercise control over the borders of the cities and to seize all books coming from suspicious places, especially the Nether- lands and Germany, above all from the Frankfurt book fairbooks that were often hidden in bundles within which they send out the paintings of Holland.
The words addressed by Robert Cardinal Bellarmine to the Inquisitor of Modena in July thus sound like a surrender, or rather the triumph of the civilization of the book in all its power. Other transla- tiones have taken place. Remarqueon the squares in front of the. Polastron, Libri al rogo: Storia della distru- zione infinita delle biblioteche Bonnard: Milano See also the Bulla Exurge Domine against Luther: ut eius memoria omnino deleatur de Christifidelium consortio Reichs universities, those malevolent bonfires triggered a new series of migrations of men and books, a new translatio on the path of freedom.
Beyond the voluntary exiles, the daring transfer of the library of the War- burg Institute from Hamburg to London by two boats that landed on the shores of the Thames in December is paradigmatic: sixty thousand volumes, documents, and photographs from a great school that had pro- foundly altered and renewed research into iconology, art history, and the history of ideas.